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Difficulties in the promotion of biomass heating

2020-05-12 14:59    page view:

Guide: "Biomass energy is the only zero-carbon fuel, which cannot be overemphasized"
  In Xintaizi Town, the heating demand of Tieling Daao Breeding Plant is 50,000 square meters. Due to the particularity of breeding, it is also required that the room tempera

"Biomass energy is the only zero-carbon fuel, which cannot be overemphasized"
  In Xintaizi Town, the heating demand of Tieling Daao Breeding Plant is 50,000 square meters. Due to the particularity of breeding, it is also required that the room temperature be maintained at around 20 degrees Celsius.
"In the past, using small coal-fired boilers, the temperature was not easy to control. According to the average coal price of 800 yuan / ton, 1200 tons of coal per year, the cost of light fuel is close to 1 million." The person in charge of the plant said, try to use 2 straws this winter The central heating boiler has stable room temperature and is more economical. "A heating season is expected to use 2,500 tons of straw, which is equivalent to a fuel cost of 500,000 yuan, which is half that of burning coal."
  The reporter learned that at present, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs is planning to promote biomass energy heating pilots in Liaoning and Shandong, which are rich in straw resources. Judging from the situation of the pilot for 3 years, the pollutant emission from "coal to biomass" is superior to the "Boiler Air Pollutant Emission Standard". Compared with coal-fired heating, the latter can reduce particulate matter by 5% and sulfur dioxide by 86%. At the same time, there is no additional increase in heating costs. Taking a 2-ton straw-straight direct-fired central heating enterprise as an example, according to the calculation of one boiler for 10,000 square meters, the heating cost is 51,000 yuan less than that of a coal-fired boiler.
  In Shandong Yangxin, which is also rich in resources, there are different modes of clean heating. Fu Zhipeng, director of the county's biomass clean heating special office, told reporters that the local straw, waste wood, livestock and poultry manure and other raw materials are sufficient, and the supply can be guaranteed first.
biomass"Since 2017, we have adopted different modes such as biomass fuel + dedicated stove heating, biomass fuel + boiler unit distributed heating, and biomass combined heat and power centralized heating based on user needs and economic conditions. Nearly half of the farmers in the county." Fu Zhipeng calculated an account, compared with the use of gas and electricity instead of coal, the cost of biomass heating transformation was reduced by 38% and 3.2%, and the use cost was reduced by 52% and 51%.
Biomass heating mode has also been endorsed by Jiang Yi, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering: "Biomass energy is the only zero-carbon fuel, and the current total is equivalent to 700-800 million tons of standard coal. How to achieve efficient and clean combustion and how to develop biomass energy It cannot be overemphasized."


  ▎Different opinions, unclear path, and facing many practical problems
  Environmental protection and economic benefits are obvious to all, but many industry insiders also pointed out that the promotion and application of biomass energy heating is far from enough. "Including heating, power generation and other methods, the utilization of biomass energy in 2018 is equivalent to 52.1 million tons of standard coal, accounting for about 1% of China's total energy consumption." According to Dou Kejun, a researcher at the National Renewable Energy Center, biomass Energy is still a "neglected renewable energy giant."
   Dou Kejun believes that the problem first lies in the understanding of policy. On the one hand, according to the "Notice on Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Development of Biomass Energy Heating" and "Notice on the Construction of Demonstration Projects for the Construction of "Hundreds of Towns" Biomass Combined Heat and Power Cogeneration County", the development of biomass energy is supported Follow. But on the other hand, the support of biomass heating is still insufficient, and it is currently difficult to enjoy the same subsidy policies as gas and electricity instead of coal. "The concept and understanding of biomass heating is quite different in different regions. For example, some regions still have doubts about the cleanliness of biomass fuels. There are still regions where the role of biomass energy in clean heating systems is still not To understanding."
Hao Fangzhou, director of the Rural Clean Heating Special Committee of the China Rural Energy Industry Association, also said that the “Winter Clean Heating Planning in the Northern Region (2017-2021)” has put forward relevant requirements for biomass heating, but at the local level, there are different opinions. Phenomena such as unknown paths occur frequently, and policy swing has become one of the main constraints. "For example, some regions have clearly completed the bidding, and the heating stoves have also been issued. Suddenly they stopped for unknown reasons. What should I do if the stove is returned? Users and enterprises are at a loss."
  
In addition to the lack of policy understanding, Yang Xudong, a professor at Tsinghua University, proposed that a series of practical problems need to be solved urgently in order for biomass to truly occupy a place in clean heating. "First, how to further reduce the price of pellet fuel and facilitate access; second, how to make biomass stoves more efficient and convenient, so that the people like to use it and are willing to use it."
   Yang Xudong gave an example. Biomass resources cannot be directly ignited. They must be processed and then burned cleanly, which involves two key links: front-end collection and back-end emissions. "But at present, some places adopt the method of building factories and processing, with a long collection radius, large storage space, and invisible high fuel cost, which makes people unwilling to use. Another example is some stove manufacturers, in order to reduce costs and cut corners, resulting in burning It is sufficient and the emissions are not up to the standard. These practical problems are not resolved and directly affect the application of biomass energy for heating."
  ▎Exploring the development model of biomass forming fuel suitable for rural areas is the key
"The calculations show that the emissions of biomass direct combustion account for about 20% of the national air pollution emissions. As a clean fuel, its contribution to air pollution accounts for up to 1%-2%. From the perspective of environmental protection and low carbon, biomass It has obvious advantages in heat supply." Yang Xudong further stated that biomass is an indispensable product of agriculture and forestry production, and is rich in resources in some rural areas. However, at present, a lot of resources are wasted in vain, and it does not really solve the farmers' own energy consumption problems.
   Yang Xudong believes that exploring the development model of biomass forming fuel suitable for rural areas is the key to promoting the clean heating of biomass in rural areas. In this regard, we must first have a clear understanding and make it clear from the policy level. "
   Dou Kejun suggested to strengthen priority guarantee and fair access for biomass energy heating application. "Doing a good district heating plan is not only a special heating plan, but also integrated with the city's comprehensive development plan, so that biomass heating can be more effectively integrated into regional industrial development. At the same time, strengthen biomass resources The investigation and evaluation system construction and the establishment of a resource guarantee system are related to the role of biomass in the clean heating system during the "Fourteenth Five-Year Plan" period. A clear understanding of resource guarantee and supply can better coordinate resources , Scientific layout."

 In this regard, the head of the Rural Clean Heating Special Committee of the China Rural Energy Industry Association also suggested that focusing on rural clean heating can greatly increase the proportion of straw and other biomass energy used in resource-rich areas. Specifically, encourage straw-bundle direct-fired heating enterprises and straw-shaped fuel production enterprises to establish collection, storage and transportation systems, and support enterprises, cooperatives, and brokers with the ability to collect, store, and transport to expand the scale; establish farmers, collection, storage and transportation entities, and straw Fueling utilizes the enterprise's interest connection mechanism, explores ways in which the government purchases services, PPP, etc., and promotes the industrial development of clean straw heating.

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