Guide: In the last autumn and winter of the blue sky defense battle, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment continued to carry out air pollution control actions
The last autumn and winter
The Ministry of Ecology and Environment continues to carry out air pollution control actions
Although the quality of the atmospheric environment has achieved visible results, there is still pressure to complete the goal of the blue sky defense war, especially the good percentage of days. In this regard, Zhao Yingmin, Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, pointed out that this year will continue to carry out air pollution control actions, through precise pollution control, scientific pollution control, and pollution control in accordance with the law, to ensure that this year's blue sky defense war ends successfully.
□ Our reporter Jianrong Qiao
With the advent of autumn, my country's air pollution prevention and control has also entered a critical period. Different from the past, this autumn and winter is the final year of the "Three-Year Action Plan to Win the Blue Sky Defense War" (hereinafter referred to as the "Action Plan"), which is the final year of the blue sky defense war.
It must be affirmed that after the implementation of the "Ten Atmosphere", especially the "Action Plan", the improvement of my country's atmospheric environmental quality, especially in key areas such as the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei "2+26" cities, has significantly exceeded people's expectations. According to the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, from January to August this year, the average percentage of good days in 337 cities across the country reached 86.7%; the proportion of good days in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding "2+26" cities increased by 11.5 percentage points. The public's sense of blue sky and happiness has been greatly improved.
Although the quality of the atmospheric environment has achieved visible results, there is still pressure to complete the goal of the blue sky defense, especially the proportion of good days. In this regard, Zhao Yingmin, Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, pointed out that this year will continue to carry out air pollution control actions, through precise pollution control, scientific pollution control, and pollution control in accordance with the law, to ensure that this year's blue sky defense war ends successfully.
The public sense of gain has increased significantly
According to the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, from January to August this year, the average number of good days in 337 cities at prefecture-level and above was 86.7%, an increase of 5.0% year-on-year; the PM2.5 concentration was 31 micrograms/m3, a year-on-year decrease of 11.4% . Especially in August, the average number of good days in 337 prefecture-level and above cities across the country reached 93.0%, an increase of 5.9% year-on-year; the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei "2+26" cities and the Yangtze River Delta, Fenwei Plain and other key areas of the atmospheric environmental quality also All are improving.
In fact, not only this year, but according to Zhao Yingmin, after three years of hard work, the average concentration of PM2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas in autumn and winter dropped from 104 μg/m3 to 70 μg/m3, a cumulative decrease of 32.7%. The average number of days of heavy pollution dropped from 37.4 days to 14.1 days, a decrease of 62%. Compared with 2016, in 2019, the average concentration of PM2.5 in “2+26” cities dropped by 22%, and the number of days of heavy pollution decreased by 40%. Among them, the concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing decreased from 73 μg/m3 in 2016. It dropped to 42 micrograms/cubic meter last year, and the number of days of heavy pollution dropped from 34 days to 4 days. He pointed out that the public's sense of blue sky and happiness has been greatly improved.
The remarkable improvement of the atmospheric environment quality is inseparable from the establishment of the Prime Minister’s Fund.
On April 26, 2017, Premier Li Keqiang presided over an executive meeting of the State Council to determine the establishment of a research project on the causes and treatment of heavy air pollution, led by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, to focus on the causes of heavy air pollution, key industries and pollution in the autumn and winter of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas We will focus on tackling problems such as waste management technology and residents' health protection, and promote continuous improvement of air quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas.
Zhao Yingmin said that since the implementation of the key research project, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment has organized 2,903 scientific and technological workers in the field of atmospheric environment, including 295 scientific research units and 20 academicians, together with relevant departments, to form the National Air Pollution Prevention and Control Center, forming a multi-sectoral collaboration. , Central and local integration, multi-disciplinary cross-disciplinary research mode; sent 28 "one city, one policy" station tracking research team to the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei "2+26" cities. He said that after three years of hard work, the research project has clarified the causes of heavy air pollution in the region in autumn and winter, accurately identified the characteristics of regional pollution emissions and key issues, and put forward proposals for deepening air pollution control.
According to Zhao Yingmin, the research project has built the largest air-space-earth comprehensive three-dimensional observation network and data sharing platform in China, established a complete regional PM2.5 comprehensive source analysis method system, and formed a refined and quantitative dynamic analysis of the heavy pollution process. ability. At the same time, a regional and urban high-temporal-resolution emission inventory has been established to find out the current status of regional pollutant emissions, and quantitatively evaluate the health effects of atmospheric particulate pollution and the health benefits of pollution prevention measures.
"The research project has been applied in time in the first line of pollution prevention and control in the '2+26' cities, so the effect is very obvious. The entire project has greatly improved the accuracy and scientificity of regional air pollution control." Zhao Yingmin said that the research project is powerful Supported the preparation and implementation of the Action Plan and the Autumn and Winter Tackling Action Plan.
Zhao Yingmin pointed out that the research project has also greatly promoted the coordinated development and green development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. He said that last year's "2+26" city GDP reached 14.2 trillion yuan, an increase of 17.2% over 2016, achieving a win-win situation for high-level protection of the ecological environment and high-quality economic development.
Still under pressure to achieve goals
The Action Plan issued by the State Council clearly stated that by 2020, the total emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides will be reduced by more than 15% respectively compared with 2015; the concentration of PM2.5 in cities at and above the standard will be reduced by more than 18% compared with 2015 The ratio of days with good air quality in prefecture-level and above cities reached 80%, and the ratio of days with severe pollution and above dropped by more than 25% compared with 2015.
During this year’s “6·Five” Environment Day, Bai Qiuyong, director of the Monitoring Department of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, once said that the average concentration of PM2.5 in cities at prefecture-level and above in 2019 was 36 micrograms/cubic meter, which is still far from the national second-level standard. 1 microgram/cubic meter; the average concentration of PM2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas, and the Fenwei Plain is about 1.6 times that of the national secondary standard, and regional air pollution processes occur from time to time.
Ozone pollution is more prominent especially in summer. The “2019 China Ecological and Environmental Status Bulletin” released on June 2 this year shows that in 2019, 30% of the country’s 337 cities have exceeded ozone standards, and ozone pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Yangtze River Delta regions is particularly prominent. Bai Qiuyong said that in 2019, the number of days exceeding the standard with ozone as the primary pollutant accounted for 41.8% of the total number of days exceeding the standard, second only to PM2.5, which accounted for 45%. He said that summer ozone pollution has become an important "blocker" in winning the battle to defend the blue sky, and PM2.5 pollution in autumn and winter has become the "two mountains" in front of us.
This year's Spring Festival is the high incidence of new coronary pneumonia, during which there have been several heavy air pollution processes. Investigating the reason, Chai Fahe, deputy director of the National Center for Air Pollution Prevention and Control, believes that one of the reasons is that "the current atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions, especially unfavorable meteorological conditions, are not'desensitized'". In his view, the adjustment of energy, industrial structure, and transportation structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas cannot be accomplished overnight.
"Pollutant emissions are still relatively large in this area. Once extreme adverse weather conditions are encountered in autumn and winter, heavy air pollution will also occur."
Chai Fahe said that in order to completely eliminate heavy pollution and achieve the blue sky and white clouds, the emissions of major air pollutants in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei "2+26" cities need to be reduced by 40% to 75% on the basis of 2016.
Will continue to carry out tackling actions
The last autumn and winter of the blue sky defense war has arrived. How to ensure that the blue sky improvement goals set in the Action Plan are completed on time and with quality? Zhao Yingmin pointed out that the Ministry of Ecology and Environment has made comprehensive deployment and arrangements for the prevention and control of air pollution in this autumn and winter. The core of this year’s autumn and winter is still responding to and preventing the occurrence of heavy pollution." This year, we will continue to promote the comprehensive management of air pollution in key areas in the autumn and winter, and grasp the implementation of the various tasks and measures of the blue sky defense war that have been issued to consolidate the existing The air quality improvement achieved. Zhao Yingmin emphasized that, instead of increasing layers of hard work, the focus is on implementing the responsibilities of departments and local governments to ensure that this year's blue sky defense war ends successfully.
The State Council’s executive meeting determined that the cause of heavy air pollution and its treatment project pointed out that more than 90% of the heavily polluted days in key areas are concentrated in autumn and winter. Therefore, air pollution prevention and control in autumn and winter is the top priority of the work throughout the year.
Zhao Yingmin pointed out that in the past three years, around the critical season of autumn and winter, and in accordance with the clear plan of the key research project, the “scattered and polluted” enterprises in key areas such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei “2+26” cities have basically completed the remediation, and the ultra-low emission transformation of the steel industry It is currently proceeding in an orderly manner. Coal-fired boilers in urban built-up areas have been basically eliminated, and coal-fired power plants have basically completed ultra-low emission transformation. On this basis, this year will place more emphasis on precise response to heavily polluted weather. Zhao Yingmin said that by strengthening regional joint prevention and control, improving key regional emergency response mechanisms, establishing a fast and effective operation mode, and ensuring the activation of regional emergency response, all relevant cities can respond in time and respond effectively.
The implementation of precise scientific prevention and control is one of the achievements of the key research project. According to Zhao Yingmin, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment has carried out precise performance grading for 39 key industries. "In short, it means that companies in 39 industries are divided into A, B, and C according to their environmental performance. A type of enterprise In the case of polluted weather, it is possible to reduce or not reduce emissions; Type B is to carry out corresponding emission reductions as required; Type C may require more emission reductions." Zhao Yingmin said that through differentiated management to encourage "advanced", Encourage "backwardness" and finally realize industrial upgrading, technological progress, and high-quality development through environmental management.
"This year is the final year of the Blue Sky Defense War. From the current data, the PM2.5 concentration of cities that have not reached the standard, whether in key areas or the whole country, has completed the tasks assigned by the '13th Five-Year Plan' and the Blue Sky Defense War a year in advance. ; The excellent day ratio is also working hard.” Zhao Yingmin pointed out that air pollution control is more focused on man-made emissions and greatly reduced pollutant emissions. “As far as the current situation is concerned, if extreme weather conditions do not occur, we are confident that we will complete the task successfully. ."